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Which is better, 410 stainless steel or 304?

410 stainless steel and 304 stainless steel are commonly used stainless steel grades, which are very different in terms of composition, performance, use, etc., but to say which of the two is better? 

304 stainless steel contains more metal elements than 410 nickel (Ni), better corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance, better stability, a wide range of uses, suitable for industrial and home decoration and daily tableware; The 410 stainless steel has higher carbon content, better strength and hardness, stronger magnetism, and is suitable for industrial appliances, such as bolts, nuts, pumps, rulers and some tableware.

410 stainless steel and 304 comparison table

First of all, we need to understand the basic knowledge of stainless steel. Stainless steel is generally made of iron as the main component, and then add some carbon compounds, nickel, chromium and other metal elements made of stainless steel grade is generally the content of these rare metals. The commonly used method of evaluating the grade of stainless steel is the American Standard ASTM developed by the American Iron and Steel Institute, and the grades of stainless steel 410 and 304 are formulated according to this method.

Next, I first introduce these two kinds of stainless steel, and then focus on comparing the difference between the two, and give relevant suggestions and precautions.

First, 304 stainless steel

304 stainless steel is a kind of stainless steel brand we see most in life, stainless steel bowls and chopsticks, stainless steel spoons, cups are most of this material. This stainless steel contact acid and alkali more, therefore, it has a good acid and alkali resistance, and high density, polishing good. This stainless steel is currently the most widely used, accounting for 50% of all stainless steel production.

304 stainless steel basin

Two, 410 stainless steel

410 stainless steel contains 0.15% carbon, 13% chromium, which is semi-martensitic stainless steel, quenched and tempered with high strength and toughness, in the temperature does not exceed 30 degrees in the weak corrosive medium has good corrosion resistance and machining properties. In the wet atmosphere, fresh water conditions also have rust resistance and corrosion resistance, and have high thermal stability below 700 degrees. Good machinability but poor machinability and weldability.

410 stainless steel screws

Iii. Comparison

1. Material composition and corrosion resistance

304 stainless steel contains 17%-19% chromium and 8%-10% nickel; The 410 stainless steel contains 0.15% carbon and 11.5%-13.5% chromium, and does not contain nickel. 304 stainless steel has a higher chromium content than 410, so corrosion resistance, oxidation resistance and high temperature resistance are much stronger. For example, 304 stainless steel is not corroded by common foods and the environment, while 410 stainless steel is relatively easy to corrod.

2. Strength and hardness

410 stainless steel is martensitic form, semi-martensitic, and 304 stainless steel is austenitic form, so 410 stainless steel has higher strength and hardness than 304 stainless steel. Therefore, 410 stainless steel is mostly used in the automobile transportation industry, and is not afraid of collisions, while 304 stainless steel is mostly used in life scenes, such as POTS and pans, cups and so on.

3. Magnetism

410 stainless steel is one of the most commonly used martensitic stainless steels, and unlike austenite (such as AISI304 and AISI316), martensitic is magnetic and can be hardened by heat treatment such as carbon steel and low alloy steel. The 304 stainless steel requires cold processing to have a certain magnetic properties.

Step 4: Use

410 stainless steel is generally used for bolts, nuts, pump parts, tableware, ruler, etc., for general purpose steel, cutting tool steel. Its derivatives also serve a variety of purposes. 410S is a steel that improves the corrosion resistance and formability of 410 steel. 410F2 is a lead easy cut steel that does not reduce the corrosion resistance of 410 steel. 410J1 is a high strength steel grade that further improves the corrosion resistance of 410 steel and is used for turbine blades and high-temperature components.

304 stainless steel has the characteristics of corrosion resistance, high temperature resistance, good processing performance and high toughness, widely used in industrial and furniture decoration industries and food and medical industries, and can be used to make equipment and machine parts requiring good comprehensive performance. 304 stainless steel is widely used, and most of our commonly used POTS and pans, water cups and so on use this material.

Iv. Suggestions and Precautions

If you choose daily utensils such as tableware cups, etc., you can directly choose 304 stainless steel food-grade material, which is also the lowest grade of food-grade stainless steel, and the cost performance is relatively higher; The 410 stainless steel is generally used for composite pot bottom (induction cooker use) or knife and fork.

In addition, it is important to note that when choosing stainless steel food utensils, it is necessary to choose food-grade stainless steel, that is, with the logo of GB 4806.9-2016. GB 4806.9-2016 is the national standard for stainless steel tableware, which clearly specifies what standard stainless steel in contact with food should meet.


Zhishang Steel Co., Ltd

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