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Different characteristics of 15 kinds of metal materials and their applications

1.45 Steel: high quality carbon structural steel

Main characteristics: It is the most commonly used medium carbon steel, cold plasticity, annealing, normalizing than tempering to slightly better, with strong strength and good machinability, after appropriate heat treatment can obtain a certain toughness, plasticity, wear resistance. Comprehensive mechanical property is good, low hardenability, water quenching when cracking tendency. Small parts should adopt tempering treatment, which can obtain higher strength and toughness; Large parts should be normalized. Therefore, 45 steel is usually used in the condition of tempering or normalizing.

Main applications: widely used in mechanical parts, mainly used in the manufacture of high strength moving parts, such as impeller, compressor piston, shaft, gear, rack, worm, etc. Attention should be paid to preheating before welding and stress relief annealing after welding.

2.Q235A (A3 steel) : the most commonly used carbon structural steel

Main characteristics: good plasticity and toughness, a certain elongation, good weldability, hot workability and cold stamping performance, and a certain strength of cold bending performance.

Main applications: Widely used in general requirements of parts and welding structure. Q235A is generally used in hot rolling state, with its rolled steel, steel, steel, can also be used to manufacture a variety of welded structural parts, Bridges and generally not important machine parts, such as bolts, rod, rivet, ring and connecting rod.

3.40Cr: One of the most widely used steels

Main features:

Medium carbon tempered steel, cold heading die steel. The steel has moderate price and easy processing. After proper heat treatment, it can obtain certain toughness, plasticity and wear resistance.  The steel has the best comprehensive mechanical properties when tempered at 550~570℃. The hardenability of the steel is higher than that of 45 steel, which is suitable for high frequency quenching, flame quenching and other surface hardening treatment.

Main applications:

(1) This kind of steel after tempering is used to manufacture mechanical parts that bear medium load and medium speed, such as steering knuckle, rear shaft of automobile and gear, shaft, worm, spline shaft, top sleeve, etc.; ② After quenching and medium temperature tempering, it is used to manufacture parts that bear high load, impact and medium speed, such as gear, spindle, oil pump rotor, slider, sleeve ring, etc.; ③ After quenching and low temperature tempering, it is used to manufacture parts with heavy load, low impact and wear resistance, and the solid thickness on the section is below 25mm, such as worm, spindle, shaft, sleeve ring, etc.; (4) After tempering and high-frequency surface quenching, it is used to manufacture parts with high surface hardness and wear resistance without great impact, such as gear, sleeve, shaft, spindle, crankshaft, mandrel, dowel, connecting rod, screw, nut, intake valve, etc. In addition, the steel is suitable for the manufacture of carbonitriding of various transmission parts, such as large diameter and low temperature toughness good gear and shaft.

4.HT150: gray cast iron

Main properties: Most or all of the carbon in this cast iron is in free state flake graphite, its fracture is gray, so it is called gray cast iron. It has certain mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of gray iron are related to the structure of the matrix and the morphology of graphite. The flake graphite in gray cast iron has a serious cleavage on the matrix, and it is easy to cause stress concentration at the graphite sharp corners. The tensile strength, plasticity and toughness of gray cast iron are much lower than that of steel, but the compressive strength of gray cast iron is comparable to that of steel, and it is also the cast iron with the worst mechanical properties in common cast iron. At the same time, the matrix structure also has a certain effect on the mechanical properties of gray cast iron. The graphite sheet of ferritic pearlite matrix gray cast iron is slightly thicker than that of pearlite gray cast iron, and its properties are inferior to that of pearlite gray cast iron. Therefore, pearlite matrix gray cast iron is used more in industry. At the same time, gray cast iron has good casting performance, good vibration reduction, good wear resistance, good machining performance, low notch sensitivity.

Main applications: bearing medium load castings, such as frame, bracket, box, tool rest, bed, bearing seat, table, belt wheel, end cover, pump body, valve body, pipeline, flywheel, motor seat, etc.

5.35 Steel: high-quality carbon structural steel

Main characteristics: good plasticity and appropriate strength, good process performance, welding performance is acceptable, mostly used in normalizing state and tempering state.

Main applications: No. 35 steel is widely used in the manufacture of various forgings and hot press parts, cold drawn and top forged steel, seamless steel pipe, mechanical manufacturing parts, such as crankshaft, rotating shaft, shaft pin, lever, connecting rod, beam, sleeve, wheel ring, washer and screw, nut, etc.

6.65Mn: spring steel

Main features:

65Mn spring steel, manganese to improve hardenability, φ12mm steel can be quenched in oil, surface decarburization tendency is smaller than silicon steel, after heat treatment of the comprehensive mechanical property is better than carbon steel, but has overheating sensitivity and temper brittleness.

Main applications:

Small size all kinds of flat spring, round spring, cushion spring, spring spring, can also make spring ring, valve spring, clutch spring, brake spring and cold drawn wire, cold coil coil spring, etc.

7.0Cr18Ni9: Most commonly used stainless steel

0Cr18Ni9 stainless steel in the latest standard known as 06Cr19Ni10 steel, American steel number 304, Japan steel number SUS304.

Main characteristics: No magnetism, good low temperature performance. The welding parts of 0Cr18Ni9 steel with thin section size have sufficient intergranular corrosion resistance, excellent corrosion resistance in oxidizing acid (HNO3), alkali solution and most organic and inorganic acids, as well as in atmosphere, water and steam.

Main applications: As stainless heat-resistant steel is the most widely used, food equipment, general chemical equipment and other aspects are used, such as household goods, cabinets, indoor pipelines, water heaters, boilers, bathtubs, auto parts, medical equipment, building materials, chemical, food industry, agriculture, ship parts.

8.Cr12: cold working die steel

American steel number D3, Japanese steel number SKD1

Main properties: high carbon and high chromium Laistenite steel. The steel has high strength, good hardenability and good wear resistance. The impact toughness is poor, and it is easy to crack and form uneven eutectic carbides.

Main applications: Cr12 steel is a kind of widely used cold working die steel, mainly used in the manufacture of low impact load requires high wear-resistant cold stamping die, punch, blanking die, cold heading die, cold extrusion die punch and die, drill sleeve, gauge, drawing die, embossing die, wire rolling plate, deep drawing die and powder metallurgy cold pressing die.

9.DC53: SKD11 improved version of new cold working die steel

Japan steel S45C

Main features: DC53 is a new cold working die steel modified by Daito Special Steel from SKD11. Good cutting and abrasive performance. The quenching hardening energy is higher than SKD11, so it can improve the defect of insufficient hardness during vacuum heat treatment. The advantage of wire cutting processing is that high temperature tempering can reduce the residual stress and eliminate the residual Wastian iron, which can prevent the trouble of cracking and deformation during wire cutting processing. It has high die performance in surface hardening treatment. Simply put, it is universal cold working die steel, high hardness, high toughness.

Main applications: precision cold stamping die, drawing die, rolling die, cold stamping die, punch, etc.

10.SM45: High-quality carbon plastic die steel

Main characteristics: The steel hardenability is poor, manufacturing large size plastic mold, generally with hot rolling, hot forging or normalizing state, mold hardness is low, wear resistance is poor. High hardness and good toughness can be obtained by making small plastic mould. Carbon content in steel is high, water quenching is easy to crack, generally using oil quenching. The steel has the advantages of cheap price, good machining performance, high hardness after quenching, and good toughness and wear resistance after tempering treatment.

Main Application: It is widely used in manufacturing medium and small medium and low grade plastic molds.

11.Cr12MoV: wear-resistant carbon molybdenum steel

Main characteristics: Cr12MoV steel has good wear resistance, hardenability, hardenability, strength and toughness, thermal stability, compressive strength, as well as micro deformation, excellent comprehensive performance and a wide range of adaptability.

Main applications: ordinary drawing die, punching die, punching die, blanking die, cutting die, piping die, drawing die, cold extrusion die, cold cutting scissors, circular saw, standard tools, measuring tools, etc.

12.SKD11: Ductile chromium steel

It is the Japanese tool steel brand, which is produced by both Hitachi and Tatung Steel works. Hitachi SKD11 product is called SLD(the latest improved version is called SRD-Magic), and Tatung product is called DC11.

Main characteristics: Good toughness and high temperature fatigue resistance, can withstand temperature fusion, suitable for long-term work at high temperature, has good cutting performance and polishing performance.

Main applications: This steel is easy to turn, and it is appropriate to make sharp knife edge, scissors, circular saw, cold or hot working dressing die, roller edge, screw pattern, line die, milling cutter, impact die, circular drum, power transformer heart punch die, cutting steel rolling knife, steel pipe forming drum, special forming drum, precision gauge, shape complex cold press tools, mandrel, metallurgy, tin mold, plastic mold, screw head die.

13.D2: High wear-resisting, slightly deformed cold working die steel

Main characteristics: D2 steel not only has high wear resistance, vacuum heat treatment to HRC60°-62°, excellent processing performance, but also has high hardenability and hardenability, high temperature oxidation resistance, good corrosion resistance after quenching and polishing, heat treatment deformation is small, suitable for the manufacture of various requirements of high precision mold.

Main applications: Suitable for complex tool steel which may be deformed, all kinds of cold stamping die and cold cutting blade with high wear resistance and long life, wire rubbing plate; Cold extrusion forming, tensile film, beer stainless steel sheet and high hardness material of the scale die.

14.SKH-9: universal high speed steel with high wear resistance and toughness

Main properties: The carbide microstructure is fine, neat and well distributed. And it's evenly organized. So wear resistance and toughness are more balanced. Especially because only the carbon content increase or decrease, so no damage to the high temperature characteristics, can continuously and greatly change the properties of steel. It is suitable for high carbon steel if hardness and wear resistance are required. It has good plasticity in hot and cold working, being cut and abrasive.

Main applications: Suitable for the manufacture of strong cutting wear-resistant, advanced Heng mold, screw mold, more toughness and complex shape tools, such as milling cutter, drill, etc.

15.ASP-23: Chrome-molybdenum-vanadium powder high speed steel

Main characteristics: high wear resistance (abrasive wear resistance), high compressive strength, very good hardenability, good toughness, good dimensional stability of heat treatment, good tempering softening resistance.

Main Application: Especially suitable for thin material processing and forming. For example: medium or high carbon steel blanking, punching hardened steel or cold rolled steel strip, plastic mold containing glass fiber.


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